Theater signals for me a kind of paradigm
shift away from the purely textual toward the performative, the evanescent,
the nondiscursive, the collaborative. It can attempt to make political/intellectual/aesthetic
interventions in another register, enabling the playwright and audiences
to confront dilemmas and situations that are “good to think” in powerfully
engaging modes quite different from conventional academic prose (Feminist
anthropologist, ethnographer and playwright Dorinne Kondo 1995:51).
In the last 20 years a number of ethnographers working in
the field of education, myself included, have been experimenting with a form
of writing and disseminating research known as “performed ethnography” (Brunner,
1999; Gallagher 2006; Goldstein 2007, 2006; 2003 [Appendix A]; Mienczakowski
1997; Sykes and Goldstein 2004). Also known as “performance ethnography”
(Denzin 2003) and “ethnodrama” (Saldaña 2005), performed ethnography involves
turning educational ethnographic data and texts into scripts and dramas that
are either read aloud by a group of participants or performed before audiences.
The richness of performed ethnography comes from three sources:
the ethnographic research from which a play script is created; the reading
or performance of the play; and the conversations that take place after the
reading or performance. In these follow-up conversations, research participants
and other readers or audience members have input about the conclusions of
the research. This allows for ongoing analysis of the research findings.
The incorporation of audience input into on-going revisions of the play provides
an opportunity for mutual analysis, and in doing so, can help create more
ethical relationships between researchers, their research participants, and
the communities to which the research participants belong.
Post-reading/performance conversations also allow ethnographers
in education to link up their research to their teaching and larger public
forums on pressing social issues. For example, at the Ontario Institute for
Studies in Education of the University of Toronto (OISE/UT), where I work
as a educational researcher and teacher educator, the reading and performing
of critical ethnographic scripts have engaged our teacher education students,
and the general public, in critical analysis and discussions of critical
teaching practices in the areas of multilingual, anti-racist, and anti-homophobia
education (Goldstein 2000, 2004c, 2004b; Sykes and Goldstein 2004).
My own experimentation with ethnographic
playwriting has been a deliberate attempt to engage with the postmodern
literary turn in American anthropology that began in the mid 1980s (Behar
1995; Clifford and Marcus 1986; Marcus and Fischer 1986). This literary
turn was set off by discussions about the predicaments of cultural representation
in ethnography raised in the 1986 anthology Writing Culture: The Poetics
and Politics of Ethnography. The anthology was edited by James Clifford, a historian
of anthropology, and George Marcus, an anthropologist and critic of the
“realist” traditions in ethnographic writing that were dominant at the
time. As explained by feminist anthropologist Ruth Behar (1995),
“The book’s purpose was to make an
incredibly obvious point: that anthropologists write. And further, that
what they write, namely ethnographies—a strange cross between the realist
novel, the travel account, the memoir, and the scientific report – had
to be understood in terms of poetics and politics” (p.3).
At the heart of the postmodern literary
turn in American anthropology was the understanding that ethnographers invent rather
than represent ethnographic truths (Clifford 1983). Ethnographies were
not transparent mirrors of culture that realist ethnographers presumed
them to be (Behar 1995). The contributors of Writing Culture also questioned the politics of
a poetics, a system of writing, that relied on the words and stories of
(frequently less privileged) others for its existence without providing
any of the benefits of authorship to the research participants who assisted
the anthropologist in the writing of their culture (Fox 1991; Geertz 1988).
In response to these predicaments
of cultural representation, James Clifford set out a new agenda for (Western)
anthropology in his introduction to Writing Culture: Anthropology needed to encourage
more innovative, dialogic, and experimental writing that highlighted the
ways ethnographies are invented by the ethnographers who write them. At
the same time, the “new ethnography” needed to reflect a more profound
self-consciousness of the workings of power and the partialness of all
truth, both in the text and in the world (Behar 1995). As summarized by
feminist anthropologist Ruth Behar (1995), while the new ethnography would
not resolve the profoundly troubling issues of inequality in a world fueled
by global capitalism, “it could at least attempt to decolonize the power
relations inherent in the presentation of the Other” (4).
Having experimented with performed ethnography for almost
a decade now, I believe that ethnographic playwriting offers ethnographers
a productive way of engaging in the political and ethical dilemmas of research
production raised by postmodern anthropologists. However, I also believe
that its hybridity as a text—which strives to be, at once, ethnographic,
dramatic, and catalytic (Lather 1986)—demands multiple commitments of the
researcher. In this piece I argue that at the same time as performed ethnography
is able to respond to political, cultural, and ethical predicaments of research
production, it creates new ones. In making this argument, I begin with a
discussion of performed ethnography’s potential to respond to contemporary,
postmodern challenges to realist traditions in ethnography. I then move to
a reflective analysis of the ways the hybridity of performed ethnography
creates new ethical predicaments or dilemmas for the performed ethnographer.
Possibilities of Performed Ethnography
educational ethnographers and researchers have inherited a legacy of racism
and colonialism that makes our research suspect … my task is to attempt
to represent the experiences of those who participated in my study in a
way that does not lead to the reproduction of the policies and practices
of colonialism and racism I mean to challenge (Goldstein 2000).
As I have
written elsewhere, there are a number of reasons why ethnographic playwriting
holds exciting possibilities for responding to postmodern challenges to
realist ethnography and for ethically representing the educational and
schooling dilemmas facing Other people’s children (Goldstein 2000).
playwriting allows ethnographers to challenge the “ethnographic authority” (Clifford 1983, Lather 1993) of their own writing.
Ethnography is an interpretative, subjective, value-laden project. Writing
up ethnographic data in the form of a play (in which the conflicts are
real, verbatim transcription is often used, but the characters and plot
are fictional) reminds readers and spectators that ethnographers invent
rather than represent ethnographic truths. The artificiality of playwriting
itself is a challenge to the ethnographic authority of realist writing.
Playwright Kathleen George reminds us that “Dialogue in playwriting is
not conversation as we know it in our lives—it is the action of the play”
the theatrical performance of ethnographic playwriting and the reciprocity
of meaning making that occurs between the performance of a play and its
audience discourages the fixed, unchanging ethnographic representations
of research subjects, which have contributed to the construction of our
destructive ideas of Other people and their children. Performance allows
for changes in acting, intonation, lighting, blocking, and stage design.
These changes can shape or even transform meaning of the ethnographic text
each time it is performed (Kondo 1995:51). Other actors and their audiences
can enact and enlarge the identities of the characters that I have created.
Asian-American anthropologist/playwright Dorinne Kondo writes, “The live aspect of theater is critical.
Live performance not only constitutes a site where our identities can be
enacted, it also opens up entire realms of cultural possibility, enlarging
our senses of ourselves…”(1995:50).
as mentioned earlier, when ethnographers write up their findings in the
form of a play, which is then performed, the subjects of their research
and others in their communities can view a performance of their ethnographic
work and ratify or critique its analysis. Ethnographers can keep re-writing
and performing in response to Other people’s responses. This provides their
work with “internal” (Lincoln 1997) or “face” (Lather 1986) validity, which
are important in discussions of rigour in ethnography.
playwriting allows ethnographers to evaluate how their own biases may dominate
the text. Importantly, performed ethnography offers ethnographers opportunities
for both comment and speechlessness (Diamond and Mullen 1999). An analysis
of their characters’ words and silences allows ethnographers to ask, “Who
gets the best lines?” “Who gets the final word?” “Who gets to speak and
who doesn’t?” “How I have used silence in this play?” “How does my character’s
silence speak on stage in a way it cannot in a traditional ethnographic
as also mentioned earlier, performed ethnography has the power to reach
large audiences and encourage public reflexive insight into the cultural
experiences the ethnographer has presented (Barone, Eisner, and Finley
2000; Mienczakowski 1997). At OISE/UT, there have been times when teacher
candidates have said that encountering a new perspective or point of view
from one or more characters (i.e., research participants) in an ethnographic
script or performance has helped them question or re-think their own professional
practices. In these moments, I know that my ethnographic play script has
provoked reflection that is useful to my students.
As a hybrid writing method that
links ethnographic data analysis to dramatic writing, theatrical performance,
critical discussion and institutional change, performed ethnography demands
multiple commitments of the researcher, commitments that sometimes compete
and lie in tension with each other and present the researcher with new ethical
dilemmas. To illustrate these tensions, I will undertake a reflective analysis
of two different ethnographic play scripts I have written from the same body
of ethnographic data and reflect upon what is gained and what is lost when
one set of commitments is prioritized over another. In the analysis, I will
specifically explore how different commitments impact on some of the ethical
commitments I have as a performed ethnographer to the participants in my
There are two related reasons why
such a reflective analysis is important. First, while there has been some
preliminary writing about criteria to assess the merit of individual performed
ethnographies and other arts-based research projects (Denzin 2003; Bochner
2000; Clough 2000; Ellis 2000; Richardson 2000a, 2000b, 2000c), and some
preliminary writing about whether it is desirable to devise any criteria
at all (Bochner 2000, Clough 2000), there has been little, if any, about
the competing writing and dissemination commitments that underlie arts-based
research projects and the impact they have on the researcher’s ethical commitments.
Second, as more and more graduate
students and established scholars in education become interested in using
arts-based methods to produce and disseminate the findings of their thesis
studies and research programs, practicing arts-based researchers need to
model the ways they identify the multiple commitments underlying their work
and the ways they have responded when one or more of these commitments have
come into competition or tension with another. Such modeling of how to respond
to predicaments of research production and dissemination can contribute to
the pursuit of ethical practices in arts-based research. Underlying the following
analysis, then, is the assumption that performed ethnographers working in
the field of education need to be self-conscious of the tensions between
the various roles they play—ethnographer, playwright and critical educator—and
the commitments of form and dissemination they hold in each of their projects.
When I was thinking about ways
such self-conscious reflection might be made available to readers and spectators
of performed ethnography, the convention of “Playwright’s Notes,” which often
appear in programs of theatre performances, came to mind. Playwright’s Notes
are a place for playwrights to discuss aspects of their plays that they think
are important for the audience to know about. For example, some playwrights
discuss the historical period and/or geographic location of their plays;
others discuss the prominent themes that are embedded in the play or the
actions of a particular character. Playwright Notes are often reflections
on aspects of a play that may not be immediately evident or visible to the
Similarly, my Performed Ethnographer’s
Notes below are reflections on the tensions and dilemmas of writing and performing
an ethnographic play script that may not be immediately visible to the reader,
performer or spectator. In the notes that follow, I write about three ethical
dilemmas I encountered during the writing of two different ethnographic play
scripts: Snakes and Ladders and Alliance.
Snakes and Ladders and Alliance:
Performed Ethnographer’s Notes
(Lights up on JEFFREY, who enters
stage right and walks to his locker.)
Faggot. Fag. Fudge
(Jeffrey knocks his fist against his locker.)
Fag. Fudge packer.
(Jeffrey knocks his fist against his locker with more force.)
louder.) Faggot. Fag. Fudge packer.
(Jeffrey knocks his fist against his locker with even more
force and continues to knock against it in a rhythmic pattern. Blackout.
A tape recording of JEFFREY hitting the locker continues while he walks
over to and enters the bathroom stall. JEFFREY begins to hit the wooden
door of the bathroom stall. The tape recording of the locker knocking ceases
but the knocking against the wooden door continues. Lights up on the entire
stage but remain brighter on the bathroom stall. A teacher, ROBERTO, walks
over to the bathroom stall.)
(The knocking doesn’t stop.)
Are you okay?
(The knocking doesn’t stop.)
(The knocking stops.)
Are you okay?
Do you need help?
Open the door.
Open the door.
If you don’t open the door, I’m calling the vice-principal.
Then open the door.
(Jeffrey opens the door and starts walking away.)
Wait. What’s your name?
(JEFFREY reluctantly stops and turns around.)
How did that happen?
You’re shaking. Come with me.
her head into the office) Hi, Karen. Did you have a chance to read the GSA’s
proposal for putting on Pride Day?
Yes. And I have a lot of questions.
at her watch) Starting with, what does GSA stand for?
Gay Straight Alliance.
We have a student
group called Gay Alliance?
Yeah – I mean, no. I mean it’s called Gay Straight Alliance.
Why didn’t I know about it?
(AMY, ROBERTO, RAHIMA and JOHN leave the English office and
walk over to the Principal’s office. When they arrive, they stand outside
waiting for KAREN to finish talking to RACHEL.)
uh, I’m not sure. We got started late last year. Before you arrived. We’re
listed under “Student Clubs and Groups” in the Student Agenda book.
I must have missed the listing. (Looks at her watch). Rachel, I’m sorry,
but I have another meeting in five minutes. We’ll have to talk about this
at another time. But I want you to know that I am very surprised to hear
that we have a gay group here. (Pause) I don’t like surprises.
But it’s not a gay group. It’s a Gay Straight Alliance group.
The students talk about discrimination. Homophobia.
Who started the
One of my students approached me last year and asked me to
be the faculty sponsor. Helen Lee. She’s Jeffrey Lee’s sister. Jeffrey
was a gay grade 11 student who transferred out last year because of verbal
What kind of harassment?
Three of his classmates surrounded him at his locker and taunted
What did they say?
Things like “Are you gay, guy?” “Are you gay?” “Are you a
fag? We think you’re a faggot.” Karen, those words are just as hurtful
as “Paki” or “Chink”. And you know how hard we try to make sure that we
don't let those slurs go by. If we had a Gay Straight Alliance group here
last year, Jeffrey Lee would have had a place to come and talk about what
was happening. Maybe he’d still be here.
out of her office.) Your student teachers are waiting outside. Look, I appreciate
hearing about the slurs. We need to talk about this some more. But Rachel,
we’re teachers, not social workers. It’s not our role to facilitate support
groups for gay kids. We’re not experts. We have counsellors we can refer
students like Jeffrey to if necessary.
moving closer to RACHEL lowering her voice) Most parents don’t want their children
to hear about regular sex at school, never mind gay sex. I need to talk
to the student teachers. I’ll see you tomorrow.
While I was pleased that I had gained a dramatic beginning
and solid dramatic structure for my play, I was concerned that I had shifted
the focus of the play from a set of teachers and students trying to put
on an Anti-Racism and Pride Week at their school to one student being victimized
by homophobic bullying. The perspectives and voices of the teachers and
students doing anti-homophobia education work in their schools were being
muted in favour of the drama attached to the act of bullying. Also absent
was the principal’s voice and her perceptions of what the students’ parents
would think about the school undertaking anti-homophobia education. So
I tried to bring back some of these voices back into the play. In the excerpt
below, two teachers, Robert and Rahima, converse in the second part of
the first scene in Alliance.
A second excerpt from scene one, Alliance
(Lights fade on the bathroom stall and come up on the hallway
downstage centre. JEFFREY exits. ROBERTO crosses to the hallway. RAHIMA
enters. ROBERTO and RAHIMA begin to patrol the hallway.)
I asked, “How long has this been going on?” He said a couple
I know. I didn’t sleep very well last night.
You should talk to the Admin about this.
I tried to see Karen this morning. But she was in a meeting
with the VP’s.
Maybe you can catch her after school.
I’ll try. In the meantime, I think we should plan to patrol
the hall after school, too.
Okay. Except for Friday. I’ve scheduled a meeting for our
Right. On Friday, you start the meeting. I’ll patrol the
hall and join you later.
Can you patrol this afternoon while I try to find Karen?
Good. He’ll feel a little safer if there’s a teacher around. (Pause.) So around three
in morning, instead of sleeping, I was thinking.
yeah. Thinking again, were you? About what?
Talking to Jeffrey.
Talking to Jeffrey about what?
(Surprised) Oh. (Concerned) I don’t think
that’s a good idea.
You don’t even know if he’s gay. Just because he’s being called
names, doesn’t mean he’s gay.
I think he’s gay.
How do you know?
Seriously. I think he’s questioning his sexuality. Don’t forget.
I was Jeffrey not too long ago.
What if you’re wrong?
What if I’m right? He needs support.
But that’s not your job. We’re not social workers. Maybe you
could send him to Guidance.
None of the people in Guidance is gay. None of them has gone
through what he’s going through. I have. (Beat.) You counsel some of the Muslim girls about
Yeah, but that’s different.
Well, for one, it doesn’t involve coming out. There are still
lots of parents who don't like the idea of gay teachers in their kids’
school. And you’re still on probation. Ask the Guidance people to talk
kind of homophobic bullying Jeffrey is facing?
It leads to self-hatred.
In the second part of scene one of Alliance, I was pleased
to see that I had been able to bring back some of the teachers’ perspectives
back into the play through the characters of new teachers Roberto and Rahima
(in Alliance Roberto and Rahima
have graduated from being student teachers to new teachers). However, I
had lost one of my favourite lines in Snakes and Ladders, a line that appears in scene 3 when Rachel
talks to her colleague Anne about her meeting with the principal.
Excerpt from scene 3, Snakes and Ladders
I tried to explain that it wasn’t a gay
group and that we were talking about homophobia, not sex. But she couldn’t
hear me. For her, talking about gay issues means talking about sex. Homosexuals
are homo (emphasizing) sex uals.
The loss of this line led me to a third
Dilemma 3: Which ideas
are getting lost?
The reason the line “Homosexuals are homo (emphasizing) sex uals”
is one my favourites is because of the pedagogical work it is able to do
in post-play reading discussions. I use the line, which usually gets a
laugh during the play reading, to talk about how the lives of LGBTQ people
are often hypersexualized and, in turn, how such hypersexualization helps
produce homphobobia in schools. While I could imagine Rachel using the
line in a discussion with her colleague and ally Anne in scene three in Snakes and Ladders, I could not
imagine Roberto using the same line with Rahima in the first scene in Alliance.
By reducing the two experienced teacher and four student teacher
characters in Snakes
and Ladders down to two new teacher characters in Alliance I not only lost one of my favourite lines,
I also lost the opportunity to represent the strategic alliance work that
the teachers in my research study spoke about. At the time, I felt that
this work, which was represented in the play through the experienced teacher
characters of Anne and Rachel in scene 9 of Snakes and Ladders, could not be represented within
the more streamlined storyline of Roberto and Jeffrey dramatized in Alliance because it would
take the audience’s attention away from the main characters (Roberto and
Jeffrey). As a playwriting student learning the demands of conventional
theatre I believed that I needed to make choices that resulted in my editing
out key understandings that I had gleaned from my research.
Excerpt from scene 9, Snakes and Ladders
As the students who participate in STAR
[Students and Teachers Against Racism] know, every year the club puts on
a week of events to commemorate March 21, the International Day for Eliminating
Racism. This year, Ms. Davis and I thought about planning a whole week
of events that not only challenge racism but other forms of discrimination
as well. The Gay Straight Alliance has been working on the issue of homophobia
and has put together a proposal for a Gay Pride Day.
We’re here, we’re queer, get used to it!
(The GSA students laugh. The STAR students look uncomfortable.)
slightly) What we propose is a set of Pride Days: Racial Pride, Ethnic Pride and
Why are we calling it Gay Pride? Shouldn’t we call it LGBTQ
What do all those letters mean?
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, queer.
I thought the “Q” stood for “questioning.”
It’s used to describe people who live in the gender that is
not the one they were raised in. Like a person who was born male and is
living as a female or vice versa.
Why do we have to have Gay Pride Day during Anti-racism Week?
Yeah. Why don’t they celebrate it sometime
in June when other gay people celebrate it? March 21 is supposed to be
Some people experience racism (emphasizing) and homophobia. We need to fight
Barone, T. Eisner, E, and Finley, S. (2000). But is it useful?
Issues of utility, quality and accessibility in arts-based educational research. Arts-Based
Educational Research Conference. Albuerque, New Mexico. February 19-20, 2000.
Behar, R. (1995). Introduction: Out of exile. In R. Behar
& D. Gordon (Eds.), Women
writing culture. Berkeley:
University of California Press.
Behar, R. and Gordon, D. (Eds.). (1995). Women writing
culture. Berkeley: University
of California Press.
Bennett, S. (Ed.) (2006). Feminist Theatre and Performance. Toronto:
Playwrights Canada Press.
Bochner, A. (2000). Criteria Against Ourselves. Qualitative
Inquiry, 6 (2): 266-272.
Brunner, D. (1999). Challenging representations of sexuality
through story and performance. In J. Sears & W. Williams (Eds), Overcoming
heterosexism and homophobia: Strategies that work (169-181). New York: Columbia University Press.
Canning, C. (1995). Feminist Theaters in the USA. London: Routlege.
Case, S.E. (1988). Feminism and Theatre. London: Macmillan.
Case, S.E. (Ed.). (1990). Performing Feminisms: Feminist
Critical Theory and Theatre. London
and Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.
Clifford, J. (1983). On ethnographic authority. Representations. (1): 118-146.
J., & Marcus G. (Eds.). (1986). Writing culture: The poetics and
politics of ethnography. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Clough, P. (2000). Comments on Setting Criteria for Experimental
Writing. Qualitative Inquiry, 6 (2): 278-291.
Denzin, N. (2003). Performance Ethnography: Critical Pedagogy
and the Politics of Culture. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Diamond, C.T. P., & Mullen, C. (1999). Art is a part
of us: From romance to artful story. In C.T. P. Diamond & C. Mullen (Eds.). The
postmodern educator: Arts-based inquiries and teacher development (15-36). New
York: Peter Lang.
Eisner, E. & Peshkin, A. (1990). Qualitative Inquiry in Education: The Continuing
Debate. New York: Teachers College Press.
Ellis, C. (2000). Creating Criteria: An Ethnographic Short
Story. Qualitative Inquiry, 6 (2):
Fox, R. (Ed.) (1991). Recapturing Anthropology: Working
in the Present. Santa Fe, NM: School
of American Research Press.
Gallagher, K. (2006). Sexual fundamentalism and performances
of masculinity: An ethnographic scene study. Journal of Gay and Lesbian
Issues in Education, 4 (1), 47-76.
Geertz, C. (1988). Works and Lives: The Anthropologist
as Author. Stanford: Stanford University
George, K. (1994). Playwriting: The First Workshop. Boston: Focal Press.
Goldstein, T. (2007). Educating World Teachers for Cosmopolitan
Classrooms and Schools (includes excerpts from the performed ethnography Satellite
Kids). Asian Pacific Journal
of Education, 27 (2). (July 2007).
Goldstein, T. (2006). Towards a Future of Equitable Pedagogy
and Schooling (includes the entire 10-minute performed ethnography The
Card). Pedagogies: An International
Journal 1 (3), 151-169.
Goldstein, T. (2004a). Alliance. Unpublished ethnographic playscript.
Goldstein, T. (2004b). Performed Ethnography for Anti-homophobia
Teacher Education: Linking Research to Teaching. Canadian On-Line Journal
of Queer Studies in Education, 1 (1),
25 pages. (http://jqstudies.oise.utoronto.ca/journal/viewarticle.php?id=13&layout)
Goldstein, T. (2004c). Snakes and Ladders. Unpublished ethnographic playscript.
Goldstein, T. (2003). Teaching
and learning in a multilingual school: Choices, risks and dilemmas (includes
the entire performed ethnography Hong Kong, Canada). Lawrence
Erlbaum Associates, 221 pages. With contributions by Gordon Pon and Judith
Goldstein, T. (2000). Hong Kong, Canada: Performed Ethnography for Anti-Racist
Teacher Education. Teaching Education Journal, 11 (3): 311-326.
Goodman, L. (1993). Contemporary feminist theatres: To
each her own. London: Routledge.
Hart, L and Phelan, P. (Eds.) (1993). Acting out: Feminist
performances. Ann Arbor: The University
of Michigan Press.
Kondo, D. (1995). Bad Girls: Theater, Women of Color, and
the Politics of Representation In: Behar, Ruth and Deborah Gordon (Eds.) Women
writing culture. Berkeley: University
of California Press.
Kumashiro, K., K. (2002). Troubling education: Queer
activism and anti-oppressive education.
New York: RoutledgeFalmer.
P. (1986). Issues of Validity in Openly Ideological Research: Between a
Rock and a Soft Place. Interchange 17(4):63-84.
P. (1993). Fertile obsession: Validity after poststructuralism. Sociological
Lincoln, Y.S. (1993). I and Thou: Method, Voice and Roles
in Research with the Silenced. In D. McLaughlin and W.G. Tierney (Eds.) Naming
Silenced Lives. New York:
Lincoln, Y.S. (1997). Self: Subject, Audience, Text: Living
On The Edge, Writing In The Margin. In W.Tierney and Y.S Lincoln (Eds) Representation and the text. New York: Suny Press, 37-55.
Lincoln, Y. and Guba, E. 2000. Paradigmatic Controversies,
Contradictions, And Emerging Confluences. In Denzin, Norman, and Lincoln,
Yvonne. (Eds.). Handbook of Qualitative Research. 2nd Edition. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Marcus, George E. and Michael
M. J. Fischer (1986) Anthropology as cultural critique: An experimental
moment in the human sciences. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press.
McCaskell, T. (2005). Race to equity: Disrupting educational
equality. Toronto: Between the Lines.
Mienczacowski, J. (1997). Theatre of Change. Research
In Drama Education, 2 (2), 159-171.
Richardson, L. (2000a). Evaluating Ethnography. Qualitative
Inquiry, 6 (2):253-255.
Richardson, L. (2000b). Introduction – Assessing Alternative
Modes of Qualitative
and Ethnographic Research: How Do We Judge? Who Judges? Qualitative
Inquiry, 6 (2):251-252.
Richardson, L. (2000). Writing: A
Method of Inquiry. In Denzin, Norman, and Lincoln, Yvonne. (Eds.). Handbook
of Qualitative Research. 2nd Edition. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Saldaña, J. (Ed.) (2005). Ethnodrama: An anthology of Reality Theatre. New York:
Sykes, H. and Goldstein, T. (2004). From Performed to Performing
Ethnography: Translating Life History Research into Anti-homophobia Curriculum
for a Teacher Education Program. Teaching Education Journal, 15 (1): 31-56.
Tuhiwai Smith, L. (1999). Decolonizing Methodologies:
Research and Indigenous Peoples. London: